Egyptian Pyramids
Egyptian Pyramids

The origin of the word pyramid comes from the middle words (Ancient Greek: ýrρ = (pýr) fire + μέσο / μέση = (méso / mése)).Contrary to popular belief, the pyramids were not built only in Egypt. How the Egyptian Pyramids were Made? The pyramids were built in various parts of the world, since it is difficult to build and build, we can assume that it represents power. To give various examples from the world;

1- Egyptian Pyramids
2- Mexican Pyramids
3- Bolivian Pyramids
4- Today’s Pyramids

Egyptian Pyramids

The Egyptian Pyramids are pyramid-shaped structures located in Egypt. There are more than 100 pyramids in Egypt. Most of the pyramids were built as tombs of the pharaohs, which ruled from the Old Kingdom Period to the Middle Kingdom Period. The oldest known pyramid is the Zoser Pyramid built during the 3rd Dynasty. This pyramid and the blocks surrounding it; It was designed by the architect Imhotep. The Egyptian Pyramids are the world’s oldest built stones. The workers working in the construction were killed after the construction was finished because they knew the secret of the pyramids. The pyramids of Giza are among the largest structures built throughout history. Of the 7 Wonders of the World, only the largest pyramid in Giza, the Keops Pyramid survived.

Let’s take a closer look at these pyramids.

The first known Pyramid was “ZOSER PYRAMIDE”

Zoser Piramid, Plan

The Zoser Pyramid (Or: Step pyramid, Zoser’s Step Pyramid) is the first pyramid built in Egypt in 2630 BC. Its architect is Imhotep. The difference between this pyramid and other pyramids is that it has stairs. The entrance of the pyramid is at the top step. The walls of the pyramid, which belongs to Pharaoh Zoser, are decorated with reliefs. In other pyramids, the interior of the tombs are not decorated. This distinguishes other pyramids from the Pyramid of Steps.

http://www.arthistory.upenn.edu//zoser/zoser.html ->You can click on the link to go to the virtual tour.

So who is this architect Imhotep?

Legendary person who was an architect, writer, physician, inventor, engineer, sculptor, astronomer and vizier of Pharaoh Zoser in ancient Egypt. So How the Egyptian Pyramids were Made?

Architect Imhotep

His father is architect Khanofer and his mother Khereduankh. He has a wife named Ronpetnofret. Because of its genius, it was deified by subsequent Egyptian generations.

Imhotep is the architect of the first step pyramid. While making this pyramid, he made use of the triangle, which was holy in ancient Egyptian writings (to carry the pharaoh to eternity), and the ladder (to bring the pharaoh to eternity more easily).
Imhotep was a good doctor in Egypt. He used modern medicine centuries before Hippocrates, who is considered the father of medicine.
The tomb of Imhotep has still not been found, but the room he used to treat his patients was found, and the evidence that he used modern medicine was reached in this way.
Universal Pictures named the Mummy wizard in his Mummy movies.

GIZE PYRAMIDES or GORGEOUS TRIPLE

Gıze Pyramides

The Pyramids of Giza are Complex consisting of 3 pyramids located in the capital of Egypt, Cairo.

The general belief is that all three of the Giza pyramids were included in the scope of 7 Wonders, but the pyramid mentioned was the Great Pyramid built by the 4th Dynasty in 2560 BC as the monument-grave of Egypt Pharaoh Khufu. Traditionally, pyramid construction is the product of a “platform-mastaba” culture in Ancient Egypt and is made for the royal. Later, numerous stacks of Mastaba were made. You will be asking what the mastaba is, the ancient chamber built on the top of the grave in the memory of the dead buried under the ground in ancient Egypt civilization. We understand How the Egyptian Pyramids were Made.

Schematic of an egypt mastaba from the Old Kingdom.
Mastaba

According to scientific data, the Great Pyramid was built in 20 years; First a city was built, stone blocks were moved and stacked. It is believed that for a long time tried to straighten the surface. However, it is not yet understood how stone blocks are placed, various theories are being produced; According to a theory, the stone blocks that were taken to a spiral ramp were placed on top of each other. The ramp was covered with mud, watered and the stone blocks could be pushed. According to another theory, stone blocks were lifted with giant levers.

pyramids of giza, situation plan

1- Cheops Pyramid

Cheops Pyramid

Ancient name: The Horizon of Keops
Built: c. 2580-2560 BC (4th dynasty)
Type: Real pyramid
Materials: limestone, granite
Height: “146.7 meters (481 ft) or 280 Egyptian Royal cubit
138.8 meters (455 ft) (today) “
Base: 230.34 meters (756 ft) or 440 Egyptian Royal cubit
Volume: 2.583.283 cubic meters (91.227.778 cu ft)

It is believed that this pyramid was built as a monumental tomb in the name of the Egyptian pharaoh Khufu, and it is believed that its construction took about twenty years. Until the beginning of the 20th century, that is, it was accepted as the largest artificial (man-made) structure in the world in terms of volume and mass for 3800 years [1] and the height record could not be broken for 4000 years. [note 1] The original shape of the Great Pyramid was covered with stone plates. Today, this coating layer does not exist. There are various assumptions about the Great Pyramid and its construction or construction technique today. Stone blocks removed from a spiral ramp made according to one of the assumptions about the construction technique were placed on top of each other. The ramp was covered in mud, watered, and the stone blocks could be pushed. According to another assumption, stone blocks were removed with giant levers.
Three rooms could be identified inside the Great Pyramid. The room at the bottom of the building is probably an unfinished room created by carving the foundation rock on which the pyramid was built. Rooms [2], later named “king room” and “queen room”, are located at the top of the pyramidal structure. The great pyramid is actually part of a complex of structures consisting of two temples, a road connecting these two temples, several small tombs called mastaba around the pyramid, and pyramids. This stone work, which is believed to have remained from the Old Imperial period of Egypt, has been able to resist the harsh effects of natural conditions for thousands of years and continues to exist as a giant work that has not been fully understood but whose mysteries have been revealed one by one.

2- Kefren Pyramid

Kefren Pyramid

The height of the pyramid is 143.5 meters, and its slope is 53.2 degrees. It is believed that Pharaoh Kefren’s son Mikerinos was built. Its most important feature is that its protective coatings in the upper part of the pyramid have survived until today. The top stone is 36 tons, and how this stone was placed there is still unresolved.
Although it is smaller than Keops, it is bigger because it is placed on a high floor.

3- Myerinos Pyramid

Myerinos Pyramid

The Myerinos Pyramid is the smallest of the Giza Pyramids. The pyramid was finished by her son Shepseskaf after Mikerinos died. The pyramid is 65.5 m high. Another difference of Mikerinos from the Kefren Pyramid and Cheops Pyramid is that the burial chamber is the lower chamber.

Now I will give information about how these structures were built based on the Keops pyramid.

First of all, where do these stones come from? Yes, these stones do not come out of the desert, these stones are brought from the city of ASWAN, there is plenty of limestone in the Aswan region, on the banks of the Aswan river, as well as it is a natural and high-strength material. Stones were cut into rectangular prisms, almost as flat surface sections. But they are really hard to carry with such large stones. So, we removed the stones, how will these stones be transported to Giza, almost 20-30 km away? I am sure that if they could not find other methods with the help of workers, they would do so, but they turned a disadvantage into an advantage. The Nile river was rising 8-14 meters every year from June to September. The cut stones in Aswan were loaded on the boats and the Nile was expected to rise. When the Nile rose, the waters took all the boats to Giza and loaded the stones there. Thus, the most important thing for the construction, the material was prepared.

Assumptions about its construction

Many alternative assumptions have been made about the construction techniques of the Great Pyramid that contradict or contradict one another. For example, Davidovits suggests that the stone blocks were not moved from a distant quarry, they were a kind of solidified limestone blocks produced at the construction site, which is an unpopular claim by other Egyptologists. The vast majority thinks that these stones were obtained from a quarry, moved and used in the building by lifting or rolling.
Ancient Greeks believed that slaves were used in the construction of the pyramid, while Egyptologists acknowledged that slaves were also used in construction, but thought that tens of thousands of skilled workers must have worked in construction. The cemetery that should belong to these workers was discovered in 1990 by archaeologist Zahi Hawass and archaeologist Mark Lehner.
According to Verner, the construction team was organized in a hierarchical way; It consisted of two groups of 100,000 people, and each group consisted of 20,000 people called zaa or phyle, which were divided into smaller groups according to the skill level of the workers.
One of the mysteries of the pyramid on construction is how the construction was planned. According to the opinion of John Romer, the ancient Egyptians used the same method they had used in this structure before and later on in other structures: they were drawing the plan or parts of the master plan on the floor before using it. John Romer has devoted part of his book to this topic in itself; In this section, he tried to present the physical evidence of the existence of such a plan.
It is not yet understood how stone blocks are placed. Stone blocks from a spiral ramp made according to an assumption were placed on top of each other. The ramp was covered in mud, watered, and the stone blocks could be pushed. According to another assumption, stone blocks were removed with giant levers. According to the historian Herodotus, a 925-meter-long, 19-meter-wide ramp was built to lift heavy granite blocks to the upper parts of the pyramid.

The niche in front of the Pharaoh’s Spouse’s grave

Internal spiral ramp hypothesis

On the construction of the giant pyramids of Egypt, whose mystery has been explored for many years, in 2006, French architect Jean Pierre Houdin announced that he unraveled the secret of the Great Pyramid of Egypt in Egypt by introducing a new hypothesis. Pierre determined that the rocks used in the construction of the pyramid, located near the city of Giza, were placed with the help of spiral ramp shaped stairs built inside the pyramid. Scientists have suggested in their previous theses that the stairs or piers used for the transportation of stones were built from the outside. French architect Houdin said that the part of Keops, the construction of which was completed 4500 years ago, was up to 42 meters high, using the outer staircase, and the second part up to 137 meters was built from inside. The presentation of Architect Jean Pierre Houdin, who described his hypothesis with a 3D cinevision show, was welcomed with excitement in the world of archeology and history.

Pharaoh room

Pouring the molds on the target hypothesis

It is the hypothesis that stone blocks forming the pyramids do not move from one place but by freezing the mixture poured into the molds where they become stones. The mixture consists of limestone, water, sodium carbonate, soda, clay, this mixture is put into the mold and freezes into stone blocks. Finding this mixture, Dr Davidovits made the 12-ton block by trying the mixture. It is thought that the rocks weighing tons are always made by cutting because they are stones. However, according to this hypothesis, the rocks are not formed by cutting them from one place, but by molding where they are. Always we ask ourself How the Egyptian Pyramids were Made? All of this a teorie.

REFERENCES

  1. Bauval, Robert &, Hancock, Graham (1996). Keeper of Genesis. Mandarin books. ISBN 0-7493-2196-2.
  2. Brier, Bob &, Hobbs, A. Hoyt (1999). Daily Life of the Ancient Egyptians. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-30313-5.
  3. Calter, Paul A. (2008). Squaring the Circle: Geometry in Art and Architecture. Key College Publishing. ISBN 1-930190-82-4.
  4. Clayton, Peter A. (1994). Chronicle of the Pharaohs. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05074-0.
  5. Cole, JH. (1925). Determination of the Exact Size and Orientation of the Great Pyramid of Giza. Cairo: Government Press. SURVEY OF EGYPT Paper No. 39.
  6. Collins, Dana M. (2001). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-510234-5.
  7. Cremin, Aedeen (2007). Archaeologica. Frances Lincoln. ISBN 978-0-7112-2822-1.

1 COMMENT

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here