The first brick finds dating back to at least 7500 BC consisted of sun-dried shaped mud bodies. For example, it was a construction tool for ancient civilizations in the place known as Mesopotamia and Pakistan today.
They brought the waters of the Tigris and the Euphrates through their canals to their fields and regulated the flow of the water. The first constructions were made of reed weave and slime mud was plastered on it. After this understanding of building, terracotta brick became the main building material of the architecture.
Sumerian houses consist of rooms that surround three sides of a courtyard. The entrance of the house is usually located in the fourth direction of the courtyard. These houses, which are closed to the outside, usually have a second floor or the first floor has a slightly higher terrace, with a railing terrace that is suitable for sleeping at night.
3-Temple in the Sumerians
The development of the Sumerians’ temples with heights ranging from 3-7 times called Zigurat was in the new Sumerians period. The temples of this period consist of terraces that settle on top of each other in smaller and smaller floors and the main temple section is located at the top. Different from the first period buildings, baked bricks were used in them. There is a welcome temple here, since the top floor is considered the beginning of a ladder that allows God to descend from the sky. The ground floor is considered the house of God, and the stairs between the two sections symbolize the connection of heaven and earth. The outer faces of each floor are covered with baked bricks, and row-out feet rotate the facades of the floors from monotony.
4-Tomb Architecture in Sumerians
- Hypoge: Hypoges, mostly kings graves, are underground graves with 1 or 4 rooms buried underground.
- Tolos: These are circular graves and one-room above-ground graves covered with a terracotta cover or dome. The entrance of such graves forms an open, rectangular corridor adjacent to the main building.
All people living in this geography continued to use bricks until a recent past. However, the recent industrialization in construction has reduced the use of bricks in buildings in this geography.
Of course, if we go back to the first period of brick, since the development of cooking techniques, brick has become one of the most durable of all building materials. The bricks, lined up in many styles and designs, lined from lime to cement and even glue, provide a solid carrier exterior for the houses. Bricks must be made of equal lengths so they can be laid out properly, so countries have developed standards for brick sizes. The interesting thing is that these standards are very, very different from each other.
5-Examples from the Recent Past
This Dutch house dating back to 1540, where the Edam Museum is located today, looks great with its gradually rising decorative brick shield. The multi-purpose material allowed building builders to create impressive structures and patterns relatively easily, making the brick attractive for architects to the present day.